Once a treaty has been negotiated, there are numerous activities that must be completed in order to “close” and then “implement” the treaty. “Closing activities” are activities carried out prior to the-effective date in order to prepare a first nation for their new reality after the effective date. “Implementation activities” are activities carried out post-effective date to fully implement the treaty benefits, authorities, rights and obligations provided for in the first nation’s treaty. Closing activities involve a high volume of activity in a relatively short period of time (usually two years) while implementation activities involve a lower volume of activity over a longer period of time (in reality, implementation activities are carried out for decades after a treaty effective date). This overview provides a summary of the activities required of a first nation relating to the closing and implementation of their treaty.