This paper provides an overview of the most common land management regimes that govern development and environmental management on First Nations lands in B.C., discusses the successes and challenges First Nations face with respect to the current policy based regime that applies to contaminated sites on most Indian reserves in B.C. and proposes strategies for moving forward as the options for development and protection of the environment on First Nations lands expand. Specific examples of the Squamish First Nation’s experience with addressing contaminated sites on its Indian reserves are provided where applicable.